Torino Graduate School
in Physics and Astrophysics

UNITO-UNIPMN

Course proposal (2018)

Title 01 -  Introducing Susy
Prof. Igor Pesando, pesando@to.infn.it
CFU 5
Period 20 hrs
November 8-22, 2017 (first part)
Spring 2018 (second part)
Prerequisites
Programme 1) Chiral multiplet in 4D
        Coleman-Mandula theorem, R symmetry, susy action for chiral superfield, non
renormalization theorem and holomorphy
2) Vector multiplet in 4D
        Wess-Zumino gauge, susy action for vector multiplet
3) Susy breaking
        O' raifeartaigh model, Fayet-Iliopoulos model, soft breaking
4) Basic of MSSM
        the action, unwanted symmetries
5) Sugra in D=4
6) Moduli space of the vacua and IR effective description
Note(s) Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. Pesando (ipesando@to.infn.it)

 

Title 02 -Introduction to lattice field theory
Prof. Marco Panero, panero@to.infn.it
CFU 5
Period 20 hrs,
5-16 March 2018
Prerequisites
Programme The course presents an introduction to the formalism and techniques of lattice field theory, with a particular attention to applications for Quantum Chromodynamics and for other strongly coupled gauge theories.
Topics covered in the lectures include:

- motivation and general concepts: continuum formulation of quantum field theory, non-perturbative phenomena in strongly coupled field theories, the lattice regularization, phase structure of a lattice theory, scale-setting, continuum limit of a lattice theory;
- scalar fields and gauge fields on the lattice, strong- and weak-coupling expansions on the lattice, improved lattice actions;
- fermion fields on the lattice, the doubling problem, lattice discretizations of the Dirac operator;
- basic techniques for numerical computations in lattice QCD, hadron spectroscopy on the lattice, other common applications for QCD: meson matrix elements, light quarks, the QCD running coupling, decays, etc.;
- lattice QCD at finite temperature;
- examples of applications beyond QCD: lattice gauge theories in different spacetime dimensions, with different gauge groups, or with fields in different representations;
- open challenges: chiral gauge theories on the lattice, real-time phenomena on the lattice, lattice QCD at finite density, supersymmetry on the lattice.

The course is completely self-contained: no previous knowledge of the subject will be assumed.
Note(s) Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. Panero (panero@to.infn.it).

 

 

Title 03 -Introduction to the Physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Prof. Andrea Beraudo and Marzia Nardi
CFU 5, 20 hrs
Period March 19-30, 2018, h 11-13-Aula Fubini
(except for March 20, Aula Verde!)
Pre-requisites The course is completely self-contained: no previous knowledge of the subject will be assumed.
It is accessible to Ph.D. students both with a theoretical and an experimental background.
Programme -Symmetries and Thermodynamics of QCD
-Transport Theory
-Relativistic Hydrodynamics
-Phenomenology of heavy-ion Collisions
Note Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. Beraudo (beraudo@to.infn.it) and Prof. Nardi (nardi@to.infn.it).

  


Title 04 -Particle Dark Matter
Prof. Nicolao Fornengo
CFU 5
Period Date: May 7, 8, 9, 10 /Time: 14:00 - 16:00

Date May 11/ Time: 11:00 - 13:00

Date: May 14, 15, 16, 17 /Time: 14:00 - 16:00

Date May 18 /Time: 11:00 - 13:00
Pre-requisites
Programme The course will give an overview of the particle physics motivations for the solution of the dark matter problem, and will discuss the different astrophysical signals, both of galactic and extragalactic origin, that can be envisaged in the search for dark matter as an elementary particle. Direct
detection, as well as the whole set of indirect detection signals (electromagnetic, charged cosmic rays, neutrinos) will be presented and discussed. The course aims at providing the fundamental bases to understand the fast and complex evolution of dark matter searches and to acquire the
relevant notions useful to follow the astroparticle physics literature in the field.
Note Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. Fornengo (fornengo@to.infn.it) by the end of December.


Title 05 -  Introduction to Flavour Physics
Prof. Enrico Lunghi, elunghi@indiana.edu
CFU 2.5
Period 10 hrs, May 2018
Prerequisites
Programme - CKM mechanism
- Effective Hamiltonians
- CP violation
- BSM models: few examples
- Effective Field Theories (HQET, etc..)
- Exclusive and inclusive b->sll  and present experimental anomalies
Note(s) Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. Lunghi (elunghi@indiana.edu)

Title 06-Quantum communication
Prof. Ivo Degiovanni
i.degiovanni@inrim.it
CFU 4
Period 16 hrs, h 15-18 (Sala Fubini)

29/3
5/4
6/4
13/4
27/4
4/5
Prerequisites  
Goals The most peculiar characteristics of quantum mechanics are the existence of indivisible quanta and entangled systems. Both of these are the roots of Quantum Communication which could very well be the first engineered application of quantum physics at the individual quantum level. In particular Quantum cryptography has great potential to become the key technology for securing confidentiality and privacy of communication in the future ICT world.
Here the fundamentals of quantum communication are introduced. Main applications with experimental implementations are presented. Experimental results and technological challenges are discussed.
Program a)    Introduction to quantum information
The qubit concept
Qubit practical realisations
No-cloning theorem
Quantum state tomography

b) Quantum Cryptography with single photons
      Quantum key distribution
      Experimental implementations
      Von Neumann Entropy vs. Shannon Entropy
      Eavesdropping strategy and security criteria

c) Quantum entanglement
      Entangled states and their properties
      Practical realisations
      Bell’s inequality

d) Quantum Cryptography by entangled states
Protocols
Experimental implementations

e) Quantum protocols
Teleportation of qubits
Teleportation of entanglement: entanglement swapping
Quantum dense coding
Experimental implementations of Bell’s state analysis

f) Generalized evolution of quantum systems
       Quantum operations
       Tomography of quantum operations

Bibliography


Title 07-Bioinspired materials
Prof. Federico Bosia
federico.bosia@unito.it
CFU 2
Period 8 hrs, timetable
Prerequisites
Programme The course covers some of the main topics in the mechanics of biological and bioinspired materials, i.e. materials that draw inspiration from specific examples found in Nature that display exceptional performances and functionality.

Topics:
Biomaterials and biological structural materials: wood, bone, tendons, spider silk... ;
Achieving function through structure: examples of bioinspired design (e.g. gecko paws, spider webs, lotus leaves);
Importance of hierarchical structure;
Simultaneous optimization of competing properties: Strength vs. toughness, Stiffness vs. density, etc.  Biomimicry and bioinspiration.
Artificial materials: traditional composite materials, nanocomposites and their applications. Hierarchical composite materials. Bioinspired composite materials. Self-healing materials. Metamaterials.
Review of basic physical concepts and their application to biological/bioinspired materials: elasticity, fracture mechanics, flaw tolerance, fatigue, adhesion/antiadhesion, hydrophobicity, friction, wave propagation and damping.
Theoretical models and numerical approaches used in the modelling of heterogeneous (composite) materials; multiscale modelling; fibrous materials and fibre bundle models; finite element modelling; peridynamics.
Metamaterials: vibration damping, wave focusing, cloaking, band gaps
Examples and case studies.
Bibliography Peter Fratzl, Matthew J. Harrington, Introduction to Biological Materials Science, Wiley, 2015
Marc Andre' Meyers, Po-Yu Chen. Biological Materials Science: Biological Materials, Bioinspired Materials, and Biomaterials. Cambridge University Press, 2014

Title 08- Introduction to Turbulence 
Prof. Filippo De Lillo, 
CFU 3
Period 12 hrs, March/April 2018
Prerequisites
Programme     The Navier-Stokes equations
    The phenomenology of fluid turbulence.
    Statistical description of turbulence
    A.N. Kolmogorov’s 1941 theory. 
    Intermittency and the  multifractal formalism.
    Numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Bibliography U. Frisch, “Turbulence: the legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov”, Cambridge University Press (1995)
Notes
Interested students should send an email to filippo.delillo@unito.it by February 15th


Title 09-Ion Beam Based Techniques for Materials Science
Prof. Paolo Olivero, Ettore Vittone
CFU 2
Period 8 hrs, May 2018
Prerequisites Fundamental concepts in Solid State Physics
Program

The course treats the fundamental concepts on the use of techniques based on energetic ions (keV-MeV energies) for the characterization and modification of materials and devices. Some case studies will also be discussed. In particular, the 4 2-hours lectures will be structured as follows:

- lecture #1 (E. Vittone): introduction to Ion Beam Based Techniques, basic Instrumentation, MeV ion/matter interactions

- lecture #2 (E. Vittone): Backscattering Spectroscopy (BS), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)

- lecture #3 (P. Olivero): ion beam microscopy: basic concepts and experimental techniques

- lecture #4 (P. Olivero): ion beam lithography: ion beam fabrication and single-ion doping

Bibliography

- notes from the lectures

- M. B. H. Breese, D. N. Jamieson, P. J. C. King, "Materials Analysis Using a Nuclear Microprobe", Wiley-VCH (1996)

- "Handbook of modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis", Editors: Y. Wang, M. Nastasi, Materials Research Society, 2nd edition ( 2009)

- "Ion-Beam-Based Nanofabrication", Editors: D. Ila, J. Baglin, N. Kishimoto, P. K. Chu, MRS Symposium Proceedings vol. 1020, Materials Research Society (2007)



Title 10- Advanced laboratory
Prof. Riccardo Bellan, Nicola Amapane
riccardo.bellan@unito.it, amapane@to.infn.it
CFU 5
Period Theory: June, 12-13, h 14-16; June 14, 9-11 (Aula Fubini)
Lab practice: June 14-15, h 14-18
June 18-22, h 9-13
Prerequisites Possibily, course in calorimetry
Goals The goal is to perform a simple but non-trivial experiment where students will have the opportunity to take care of all aspects, including:
-experiment design
-data acquisition
-data analysis
Programme Theory Part:
-Introduction to tracking techniques (4 h)
-Introduction to the available equipment and to the measurements (2 h)

Lab Part:
Measurements will include:
-coincidence and anti-coincidence gamma spectroscopy;
-vertex reconstruction using data from a PET-like system.

The students will elaborate a strategy to perform the measurements, set up the data acquisition system, and write the software to reconstruct and analyze data.
Bibliography



Title 11- Data Analysis Techniques
Prof. Livio Bianchi
CFU 6
Period 24 hrs,
Prerequisites Basics on statistics and probability theory
Basic programming skills in c/c++
Goals  
Programme Reminder of basic probability theory
Monte Carlo methods (basic)
Statistical methods for:
- Parameter estimation (confidence intervals)
- Hypothesis testing (general, goodness-of-fit)
Bibliography See last year's course webpage
Notes Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. L. Bianchi (Livio.Bianchi@cern.ch)


Title 12-Hands-on Fitting and Statistical Tools for Data Analysis
Prof.

Giacomo Ortona (g.ortona@cern.ch)

CFU 4
Period 16 hrs, first two weeks-May 2018
Prerequisites Make sure before the classes to have an account on the local machines, or bring your laptop with a ROOT/RooFit installation
Goals The student will learn how to master modern fitting and statistical interpretation tools
Programme

The class will have an exercise oriented approach, with quick reminders of the statistical theory and a large fraction of time dedicated to practical examples.

Fitting Tools
Usage of the RooFit library:
Signal and background modelling, fitting and plotting
Treatment of extended Fits, Conditional Probability Density Functions, Toy Monte-Carlo generation

Statistics Tools
Usage of the RooStats library: Hypothesis testing
Determination of Upper Limits
Determination of confidence intervals in likelihood ratio and Feldman-Cousins approaches
Determination of probability intervals in Bayesian approaches

Bayesian numerical calculators vs Markov-Chains MC approach 
Bibliography

Title 13-The hunt for physics Beyond the Standard Model
Prof.

Cristina Botta, cristina.Botta@cern.ch

CFU 3
Period 12 hrs, September 20, 21, 27, 28, h 10-13
Prerequisites Possibly: basic knowledge of particle accelerators and detectors, basic experience in data acquisition and analysis (Prof. Amapane’s course) and statistical interpretation tools (Dr. Ortona’s course), basic knowledge of Higgs and SUSY physics.
Goals The student will learn how different analyses strategies are being designed - especially at particles colliders - to search for signatures of New Physics.
Programme Introduction: overview on the shortcomings of the SM, the needs of new physics, the experimental approach towards these open questions, and the status of current searches
The design of multipurpose experiments like ATLAS and CMS at LHC
From RAW data to Phyiscs Objects: reconstruction and identification, global event description, performance
Analyses strategy design: complementarity of different approaches
Direct searches: Introduction to the most popular BSM models and to the signatures they can induce in these detectors
Indirect searches: Precision measurements, rares SM processes
Bibliography

Title 14-  Cherenkov detectors for particle and astroparticle physics
Prof. U. Tamponi, tamponi@to.infn.it
CFU 4
Period 16 hrs, 4-13 April 2018
Prerequisites  
Programme The course will have a first introduction about the general aspects of the Cherenkov effect, followed by an overview of its modern applications: particle identification at collider experiments, calorimetry, high energy cosmic rays detection and neutrino physics.

Detailed program:

- Theory of the Cherenkov effect (basics)
- Foundamental particle identification techniques.
- DIRC- and RICH-like detectors
- Cherenkov effect in HEP calorimetry
- Cherenkov-based telescopes for astroparticle and neutrino physics (Icecube, CTA...) 
- The Askaryan effect: neutrino detection and calorimetry applications

At the end of the course the students will be required to give a seminar about a detector of their own choice, based on the Cherenkov effect.

NOTES
Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Dr. Umberto Tamponi (tamponi@to.infn.it) 



Title 15- Calorimetry in particle physics experiments
Prof. R. Arcidiacono, arcidiacono@to.infn.it
CFU 4
Period lectures, 12 hrs: 11/6-13/6: h 9-12; 15/6: h 9-12-Aula Fubini
+ 4 hrs: follow-up
Prerequisites  
Goals  
Programme
  • The physics of calorimetry
  • Detector response, energy resolution and position measurement
  • Calorimeter design principles
  • Front-end and trigger readout electronics
  • Electromagnetic calorimeters
  • Hadronics calorimeters
  • Calibration techniques
  • Some examples
NOTES
Students who are willing to attend this course are **REQUESTED** to register by sending an email to Prof. Roberta Arcidiacono (arcidiac@to.infn.it) 

Title  16-Chemo-dynamical evolution of the Milky Way
Prof. Alessandro Spagna( spagna@oato.inaf.it)
CFU 3
Period  12 hrs,  December 2017 - January 2018 (n.8 lessons)
Prerequisites   Fundamentals of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Programme

Structure, kinematics, and chemical properties of the Galactic stellar populations (disks, bulge, halo)
Non axi-symmetric components: bar, spiral arms, flare, warp
The hierarchical CDM galactic formation scenario
Elements of Galactic dynamics and cosmological simulations of Milky Way-like disk galaxies
Wide field stellar surveys (Gaia, RAVE, APOGEE, GES)
Local cosmology: chemo-dynamical signatures of the Galactic formation processes

Bibliography
Binney & Merrifield, Galactic Astronomy

Title 17 - Introduction to Radio Interferometry and ALMA
Prof. Elisabetta Liuzzo
CFU 3
Period 12 hrs,  May 2018
Prerequisites  
Programm

Introduction to radio interferometry, ALMA science and
capabilities, ALMA archive, ALMA calibration and imaging, ALMA data handling

NOTES


Title 18-Search and characterization for extrasolar planets
Prof. Alessandro Sozzetti, sozzetti@oato.inaf.it
CFU 4
Period 16 hrs, November 2017
Prerequisites
Programme -Elements of theory: planetary formation, internal structure and atmosphere, dynamic evolution;
- Detection techniques, instrument limitations and astrophysics;
- Observation of extrasolar planetary systems: statistical, structural and environmental properties
- Observation of extrasolar planetary systems: the next 15 years.
Bibliography



Title  19-High energy astrophysics
Prof. Francesco Massaro and Attilio Ferrari
f.massaro@unito.it
CFU 2.5
Period 10 hrs, September 24-28, h 11-13, Sala Riunioni, EN, 4th floor
Prerequisites
Programme - Astrophysical Sources of High Energy
- Observational properties of active galaxies and galaxy clusters
- Fundamentals of high energy plamsa phenomena
- Diffuse backgrounds: CXB and EGB
Notes Students that are willing to attend this course must inform Prof. F. Massaro via email at f.massaro@unito.it before December 31st 2017.